Others aren't convinced.
"This is a circus that I do not want to be part of," Bernardo Reyes, Neruda's nephew and biographer, said last week.
Reyes said party officials never contacted him to discuss their desire to have Neruda's remains exhumed, and he told CNN Chile that he remains suspicious of their motives.
As debate surges, Reyes said he plans to update a biography of Neruda and publish photographs taken of the poet after his death, which show Neruda's physical state and the clothes he was wearing in his coffin.
"It seems that when someone wants to find the truth but ignores all the sides of the story, that is notable," he said.
Expert: Time 'erases evidence'
The investigation into Neruda's death follows another high-profile exhumation.
As part of a massive probe of 726 reported human rights violations during Pinochet's rule, Chilean authorities exhumed Allende's body in 2011.
Official accounts ruled the leftist leader's death a suicide, saying that he shot himself -- with a gun that was reportedly a gift from Fidel Castro -- as Pinochet's troops closed in on the presidential palace.
In July 2011, Chile's Legal Medical Service confirmed that suicide was the cause of Allende's death
For decades, Neruda has been buried alongside his wife, Matilde Urrutia, in Isla Negra, a coastal area in central Chile.
Excavation crews began work there on Sunday and completed the exhumation on Monday, CNN Chile reported.
Determining what really happened will be a difficult task, since so much time has passed since the poet's death, one pathologist told CNN Chile.
"Time is a destructive factor," said Dr. Luis Ravanal, an investigator for the office of Chile's government ombudsman. "It is an element that erases evidence."
Tissues will have decomposed, he said, and even if some sort of poison were used, there may no longer be any traces remaining.
"Science has enormous limitations in this case," he said.