New York City's billionaire Mayor Michael Bloomberg can get pretty much whatever he wants, whenever he wants. Yet the item at the top of his wish list doesn't usually carry a price tag.
"In some ways, there's nothing more significant you can do for New Yorkers than making their lives better by giving them more life," explained Deputy Mayor Linda Gibbs.
Since taking office in 2002, Bloomberg has unleashed a tsunami of public health initiatives intended to do just that -- cutting sodium in prepared meals, ordering that menus in chain restaurants carry calorie counts, posting restaurants' health department grades, as well as limiting the use of tobacco products.
His first acts included a ban on smoking in restaurants and workplaces. In 2011, the restriction was extended to public parks and beaches.
The restrictions spurred a backlash of criticism.
"I got a lot of one-fingered waves -- as I would describe them -- when I marched by bars on St. Patrick's Day, for example," he told CNN's Jake Tapper last week.
Now, Bloomberg said, attitudes have changed.
"Today, you march by a bar on St. Patrick's Day and everybody seems to love you," he said.
In fact, the policies have worked and have been widely copied, according to Dr. Susan Kansagra, an assistant commissioner at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
Since Bloomberg took office, she said, the city's smoking rate has dropped from 22% to just above 14%, "one of the fastest declines in the country."
That drop would be hailed as a major success by any other politician, but Bloomberg is not easily satisfied. So this week, he unveiled the Tobacco Product Display Restriction Bill, which would force retailers to keep tobacco products out of sight of customers -- particularly young ones.
"What we're trying to do is just deglamorize, don't remind them, don't make it look like it's a normal product," Bloomberg said. "Cigarettes are not a normal product."
Its passage would be unprecedented, Bloomberg said.
That proposal too has stirred opposition. "The notion of forcing licensed, tax-collecting, law-abiding retailers to hide their tobacco inventory is patently absurd," said Jim Calvin, president of the New York Association of Convenience Stores.
"This proposal arises from a wild theory that the mere sight of packs of cigarettes on a wall behind the store counter compels kids to start smoking," Calvin continuted.
A spokesman for the parent company of Philip Morris USA, whose cigarette brands include Marlboro, said the manufacturer opposes the measure because "we believe it goes too far."
Bloomberg's eat-your-vegetables approach to public health has triggered cries that the 71-year-old media mogul, politician and philanthropist has turned the city that never sleeps into a nanny state, one where finger-wagging admonitions about what to eat and drink and how to live have become annoyingly intrusive.
But he is undeterred.
This month, Bloomberg's attempt to limit the size of soda cups to 16 ounces was rejected by a state Supreme Court judge as "arbitrary and capricious."
Not surprisingly, Bloomberg is appealing the ruling.
Risk and reward
The mayor embraces risk and, though he doesn't particularly revel in failure, he is not afraid of it, said Gibbs.
She recalled his telling a story of having spent a day skiing. Afterward, a skier remarked proudly that he had not fallen once. Bloomberg was unimpressed. "He said, 'That means you didn't try hard enough,'" Gibbs said. "If you succeeded at everything, you left opportunities on the table."
Bloomberg himself has left few opportunities on the table. After graduating from Johns Hopkins University with a degree in engineering, he got an MBA from Harvard Business School and then, in 1966 at the age of 24, he moved to New York for a job with Salomon Brothers, an investment bank.
He rose quickly, eventually overseeing the firm's information systems.